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比特幣2.0:彩色幣+Mastercoin+開放交易系統+ Protoshares

作者:網文 來源: 日期:2014-3-5 19:16:38 人氣: 標簽:比特幣 【打印】

 

——比特幣區塊鏈將在2014年展示真正的力量

全世界都在開始了解比特幣支付網絡的力量,然而這個協議的真正創新是在幕后。有很多一直在談論去中心化交換好處的比特幣愛好者不僅僅使用比特幣協議進行支付,看來2014年將是能夠讓我們看到這些功能最終落實到一些現實應用中的一年。目前有許多不同的項目正在試圖推動比特幣到下一個階段,并且很有可能在一切都嘗試過之前不會有一個明了的贏家。在我們進入比賽之前,讓我們仔細看看到底這些項目都要完成什么。

1、 分散網絡

大多數了解比特幣的人都是在2013年第一次接觸這種僅僅作為貨幣的物品,但是實際上其潛力遠遠不止如此。從其核心部分來說,比特幣是一種可以擺脫第三方集權依賴而使世界人民合理獲得物品的機制。就此科技,就有許多應用可以誕生,而比特幣僅僅是其中一項。當拋棄對比特幣的概念,來看這項技術時,會發現有許多可能存在。例如,如果有一個去中心化賬目來解釋每個人所擁有的財富,我們將不需要集中式的物品交換。如果全球對私人物品或者賬戶達成共識,我們將不需要集中式的服務項目。如果我們可以創造一個全球貿易市場,在其中買房賣房可以自由貿易時,我們將不需要Ebay(易趣網)。這僅僅是人們正確認識比特幣背后機制后的一些可能性而已。

2、 彩色幣(Colored Coins)

第一個投入應用的比特幣2.0平臺是彩色幣。彩色幣就是你指定比特幣里的一小塊,說:“這一小塊比特幣,是1美元(或者1盎司黃金)。我說它是,它就是。我也會一直支付1美元來購回它。”只要大家相信你,你就可以這么發行彩色幣。他們最近發布了第一版的chromawallet(透明錢包),其開發者希望在未來的幾周內能發布一個更加簡便的版本。我們能用這個錢包做什么呢?舉個例子,假如你有幾斤黃金在家里,你可以假設億萬分之1(satoshis)的比特幣等于1克黃金,并且標價到谷歌錢包上。這將意味著你可以將這些黃金兌換成比特幣、美元、歐元或者其他使用貨幣。另一個更加激動人心的例子是,在比特幣鏈上創建公司股票。在這種情況下,你可以拿1000 satoshis或者不論多少你愿意投入在你的公司中,并稱1000 satoshis像當于一股你信公司的股票。彩色幣項目是一個非常有趣的入門級項目,這些項目都建立在比特幣背后的機制上,并且有望在未來幾年成真。

3、Mastercoin

Mastercoins是一個與彩色幣相似的項目,但是他們更希望用另一種方式達到其目標。該項目于2013年8月成立,以此來促進的許多預期將包含在彩色幣項目的功能。被創建的第一個Mastercoins是當期資助者將自己的比特幣傳給一個特定的比特幣地址后發生的。他們的比特幣已基本轉換為Mastercoins并送回給他們。 Mastercoin是建立在比特幣之上的新的機制,因此Mastercoins基本上只是少量的具有一定特色的比特幣。一些由Mastercoin正在開發的令人興奮的功能還包括一個自由的博彩交易所,用差價合約創建無需依靠第三方物理后備貨幣。需要指出的有關Mastercoin協議的一件事是在該層面上的Mastercoins也有從比特幣身上分散的價值。這意味著,Mastercoin也是一個alt硬幣。也有一些被添加到Mastercoin協議的一些有趣的功能,如在付款時在儲蓄賬戶標記某些Mastercoins,如果他們是在沒有地址持有人的許可的能力。Mastercoin唯一真正的問題是,它是將要使用比特幣的競爭。雖然經常說Mastercoin和比特幣不是直接的競爭對手,但現實是,如果他們要能使用Mastercoin協議的許多功能,用戶將不得不將一些他們的比特幣給Mastercoins。如果許多在Mastercoin上實現的功能也對比特幣直接執行,那么人們真的不需要執行比特幣Mastercoins切換。因為比特幣的價格可能更加堅挺,Mastercoins緊跟比特幣的情況是利大于弊的。比特幣的全部價值,目前徘徊10美元左右十億,而所有的Mastercoins的價值已經低于1億美元。當涉及到貨幣的生存能力時,流動性是一個巨大的因素。所以Mastercoin的高級功能是否能允許它于比特幣的流動性優勢競爭是有趣的。無論哪種方式,世界很可能會從目前正在在Mastercoin中實現的高級功能中獲益。 Mastercoin ,很像比特幣,是一種較難理解的技術。好消息是,有一些在YouTube上的影片,其中Mastercoin執行總監羅恩·格羅斯解釋說大部分來自過去幾個月的各種采訪和介紹了協議的重要特征。

4、開放交易系統(Open Transactions)

開放交易系統在比特幣成為一個引人注目的東西之前就已經開始發展了。該項目的首席開發者Chris Odom(別名Fellow Traveler),最初想到這個項目是基于腦海中以黃金作為擔保的數字貨幣。開放交易系統的其中一個主要目標就是用允許任何人發行貨幣和各種金融資產的方式來分散整個金融環境,同時用密碼學保護自己的安全環境。任何人都可以創造一個密碼符號來代表開放交易系統的真正價值,但是這個系統的最大創新特征還是人們發行數字符號將不能改變他們的貨幣或股票分類。例如說,PayPal(貝寶)只要想的話,就可以進入他們的服務器并從你賬戶平臺上將11873.33美金更改到4902.34美金。但是這樣的行為是不可能在開放交易系統發生的,因為開放交易系統里的每一筆交易都看得見摸得著。當然,現在還有一個問題就是我們必須相信以金、銀、美元,或任何其他資產為基礎的第三方集權。現在好消息就是這個問題的解決方法已經被找到了。除了發行貨幣,一個發行者同樣可以用比特幣來做儲存擔保。比如說,假如現在有一種貨幣價值一盎司黃金,然后這個發行者就可以在第三方保管賬戶里支付與一盎司黃金相同價值的比特幣來購回它。關于開放交易系統的更多信息內容,我會在采訪Chris Odom的內容里分享,你可以在Let's Talk Bitcoin上觀看Odom的訪談錄。

5、Protoshares

與Mastercoin很像,Protoshares是一個可以讓人興奮的山寨幣因為它提供了一種不僅僅是比特幣區塊鏈復制品的服務。Protoshares的理念是只有你擁有Protoshares你將同時獲得Invictus Innovations創立的分散式自治社團的資助。他們第一個項目——Bitshares ,是基于解決去中心化平臺創造之后出現的問題的。他們的解決方式與Mastercoin 協約相似。基本上,不同的資產,比如比特美元和比特黃金將從擁有Bitshares的雙方得到他們的財富。你可以找到一個解釋,BitAssets從bitcointalk論壇的bytemaster得到價值。Bytemaster(別名Daniel Larimer)是Invictus Innovations的CEO。一旦BitShares準備好了,Invictus會開始在DomainShares和一些其他的去中心化自治社團工作,這些社團就替代了一些我們現在每天用的中心化的網上服務。

6、去中心化自治社團(decentralized autonomous corporation)

你應該在上段介紹Protoshares的篇幅里多次看到“去中心化自治社團”這個概念。到底去中心化自治社團(decentralized autonomous corporation)或者說DAC是什么呢?一個去中心化自治社團基本上就是基于運用比特幣區域鏈技術去創造一種去中心化的服務。例如,比特幣在技術上就是有史以來第一個DAC。比特幣不受中央權力機構控制,它的運行不需要有些人在公司辦公室里決定什么樣的決定。Namecoin是另外一個去中心化自治社團的例子,如果你關注它并了解它的概念,它變得更容易使用。Namecoin是一個去中心化的服務,它允許你注冊一個比特幣域名。他們提供的服務與電子郵件身份和其他網上身份相似。Namecoin基本上是一個允許你購買一個比特域名的商品。這個設置允許最原始的Namecoin開發者和接受者在他們的社團中收益。人們擁有Namecoin就有動機去宣傳它,因為它會幫助Namecoin增加價值。如果沒有這個收益的動機,在未來幾年來我們可能會看到的許多去中心化的服務也許將不太可能出現。我們將馬上看到一些不同的DACs出現,像Facebook、Twitter、Gmail、在線電子書、投票站、云儲存等去中心化的服務一樣。

誰會贏得這場比賽?

一天快要結束了,其實現實就是所有的這些比特幣2.0技術并沒有真的彼此之間在競爭。開放交易系統將允許人們用protoshares、mastercoins、比特幣,和任何其他服務進行交易。也許你將有可能用一個在基于Mastercoin 和protoshares的貨幣進行交易。人類用所有這些去中心化的服務和技術贏得了比賽,這一切我們可以謝謝中本聰和他為創造區域鏈技術的所作所為。在接下來幾年內,我們可以談論這樣的情況:整個互聯網將會被區域鏈技術所取代。

 

(原文鏈接:http://voices.yahoo.com/bitcoin-20-explained-colored-coins-vs-mastercoin-vs-12475857.html?cat=15,作者:Kyle Torpey,譯:劉臻)

以下為英文原文:

Bitcoin 2.0 Explained: Colored Coins Vs Mastercoin Vs Open Transactions Vs Protoshares

——2014 Will Show the True Power of the Blockchain

While the entire world is beginning to learn about the power of the Bitcoin payment network, the real innovation behind this protocol is happening behind the scenes. There have been many different Bitcoin enthusiasts who have been talking about the holy grail of decentralized exchanges and using the Bitcoin protocol for more than just payments, and it seems that 2014 is going to be the year when we see these features finally get implemented into some real world applications. There are many different projects that are currently aiming to take Bitcoin to the next level, and it's likely that there won't be one clear winner when everything is said and done. Before we hop into the competition, let's take a closer look at exactly what these projects are trying to accomplish.

Decentralizing the Internet

Most people who learned about Bitcoin for the first time in 2013 look at it as nothing more than a currency, but the reality is that it's much more than that. At its core, Bitcoin is a new technology that allows everyone around the world to come to a consensus on who owns what without the use of a centralized third party. There are many different applications that can be built on top of this technology, and Bitcoin is only the first of many apps to come. When you forget about Bitcoin and just look at the technology, there are a large number of new possibilities that jump out at you. For example, if you can have a decentralized ledger that explains who owns which asset, then why do we need centralized stock exchanges? If we can have a global consensus on who owns which domain name or email address, then why do we need centralized versions of these services? If it's possible to create a global marketplace where buyers and sellers can find each other in a decentralized manner, then why do we need to use eBay? These are just a few of the possibilities that people are looking at right now when it comes to taking the technology behind Bitcoin and applying it to more than just payments.

Colored Coins

One of the first Bitcoin 2.0 platforms that was put into development was Colored Coins. They recently released the alpha version of their Chromawallet, and the developers behind this project expect to have a lighter version of the client released in a few weeks. So what will you be able to do with this specialized wallet? The main idea behind the Colored Coins project is that you will be able to apply secondary values to certain bitcoins on the Bitcoin blockchain. Those secondary values can then be used to create completely new digital currencies that are backed by real world assets. For example, let's say you own some gold at your house. You could hypothetically take 5 satoshis (0.00000005 BTC) and say that each one of those satoshis is equal to one gram of the gold that you hold in your home. You could then exchange those 5 satoshis backed by one gram of gold each on the decentralized exchange in the Chromawallet. This means that you could instantly exchange gold to bitcoins, dollars, euros, or any other user currency that is created in the Chromawallet. Another, and perhaps ever more exciting, example is creating stock in a company on the blockchain with Colored Coins. In this situation, you would take 1000 satoshis, or however many shares you want to create in your company, and say that those 1000 satoshis are now equal to one share of your new company. The Colored Coins project is a nice introduction to the kinds of features that will are going to see built on top of Bitcoin over the next few years.

Mastercoin

Mastercoin is a project that is somewhat similar to Colored Coins, but they are attempting to reach their goals in a different manner. The Mastercoin project was created in August of 2013 as a way to kickstart many of the features that are expected to be included in the Colored Coins project. The first mastercoins were created when early funders sent their bitcoins to a particular Bitcoin address. Their bitcoins were basically then converted to mastercoins and sent back to them. Mastercoin is a new protocol layer built on top of Bitcoin, so mastercoins are basically just small amounts of bitcoins that have certain characteristics. Some of the other exciting features being developed by Mastercoin include a decentralized betting exchange and using contracts for differences to create currencies that don't need to rely on a third party for physical backing. One thing that needs to be pointed out about the Mastercoin protocol is the mastercoins on that layer also have their own value separate from bitcoins. This means that Mastercoin is also an alt coin. There are some interesting features that are being added to the Mastercoin protocol, such as the ability to mark certain mastercoins in a savings account where payments can be reversed if they are made without the address holder's permission. The only real problem with Mastercoin is that it is going to be competing with Bitcoin. Although it is often stated that Mastercoin and Bitcoin are not direct competitors, the reality is that users will have to convert some of their bitcoins to mastercoins if they are going to be able to take advantage of many features of the Mastercoin protocol. If many of the features implemented on the Mastercoin protocol layer are also implemented directly on top of Bitcoin, then there really won't be any reason for people to switch from bitcoins over to mastercoins. There will actually still be an incentive to stick with Bitcoin if there are not major advantages of Mastercoin over Bitcoin because the price of bitcoins will likely be less volatile. The entire value of all the bitcoins in the world is currently hovering around $10 billion, while the value of all the mastercoins has dropped below $100 million. Liquidity is a huge factor when it comes to the viability of a currency, so it will be interesting to see if the advanced features of Mastercoin allow it to overcome the liquidity advantage of Bitcoin. Either way, the world is likely to benefit from the advanced features that are currently being implemented in the Mastercoin protocol. Mastercoin, much like Bitcoin, is a technology that is difficult to understand at first. The good news is that there a number of different videos on YouTube where Mastercoin Executive Director Ron Gross explains most of the important features of the protocol in various interviews and presentations from over the past few months.

Open Transactions

Open Transactions is a project that has been in development since before Bitcoin became a big deal. The lead developer behind the project, Chris Odom aka FellowTraveler, originally thought of the main idea behind Open Transactions with gold-backed digital currencies in mind. Once Bitcoin came along, it only made sense to integrate into OT. One of the main aims of the Open Transactions project is to decentralize the entire financial landscape by allowing anyone to issue currencies and various financial assets that are secured with cryptography. Anyone will be able to create digital tokens that represent real value on Open Transactions, but one of the most innovative features of this system is that the people who issue the digital tokens will not be able to alter the ledger for their currency or stock. For example, PayPal can technically go into their servers and change your account balance from $11,873.33 to $4,902.34 if they felt compelled to do that. This kind of action is impossible with assets issued through Open Transactions because of the way that the transactions are handled and signed. Of course, there is still the problem of having to trust that a third party who is backing their currency by gold, silver, dollars, or any other asset actually has the asset in a vault somewhere. The good news is that a solution for this problem has recently been found. In addition to issuing a currency, an issuer can also store collateral for the users of his or her currency in the form of bitcoins. For example, if there was a currency that was backed by one ounce of gold, then the issuer of that currency could send an ounce of gold's worth of bitcoins into an escrow account and agree to distribute those bitcoins to the holders of that particular currency in a situation where there is a "run on the bank". For more information on Open Transactions, I recommend this interview with Chris Odom and this panel on decentralized exchanges. You can also watch Odom's interview on Let's Talk Bitcoin where he talks about integrating Bitmessage into Open Transactions for transactions between different servers.

Protoshares

Much like Mastercoin, Protoshares is an altcoin that actually gets people excited because it offers something different than a simple clone of the Bitcoin blockchain. The idea behind Protoshares is that anyone who owns Protoshares will also get a stake in the decentralized autonomous corporations that are created by Invictus Innovations. Their first project, Bitshares, is basically their way of going after the problem of creating a decentralized exchange. Their solution is similar to the contracts for differences idea that Mastercoin is also implementing. Basically, various assets, such as BitUSD and BitGold will derive their value from two parties who own Bitshares and place long and short positions on that particular asset. You can find an explanation as to where BitAssets will get their value from bytemaster on the bitcointalk forum. Bytemaster, aka Daniel Larimer, is the CEO of Invictus Innovations. After BitShares is ready, Invictus will then begin to work on DomainShares and a number of other decentralized autonomous corporations that can replace some of the centralized online services that we use today.

Decentralized Autonomous Corporations

You may have noticed the term "decentralized autonomous corporation" being thrown around a few times in the section on Protoshares. What exactly is a decentralized autonomous corporation or DAC? A DAC is basically a way to use the blockchain technology behind Bitcoin to created a decentralized service. For example, Bitcoin is technically the first DAC ever created. There is no central authority that controls Bitcoin, and it keeps running without the need for some guys in a corporate office decide on what kinds of moves Bitcoin needs to make as a company. Namecoin is another example of a decentralized autonomous corporation, and it becomes much easier to understand this concept when you take a look at this altcoin. Namecoin is a decentralized service that allows you to register a .bit domain. They are also working on similar services for email and online identities. Namecoins are basically a commodity that allow you to purchase a .bit domain. This setup allows the original developers and early adopters of Namecoin to profit from their work. People who own namecoins also have an incentive to promote and build on top of Namecoin because it will help their namecoins increase in value. Without the profit motive, many of the decentralized services that we are going to see pop up in the coming years may not have been possible or viable over the long term. We will soon see many different DACs come about that will offer decentralized alternatives to services such as Facebook, Twitter, Gmail, online sportsbooks, voting booths, SSL, cloud storage, and much more.

So Who Will Win the Battle?

At the end of the day, the reality is that all of these Bitcoin 2.0 technologies are not really competing against each other. Open Transactions will allow people to trade protoshares, mastercoins, bitcoins, and everything else on their servers. Perhaps you will even be able to trade a protoshares-backed currency on top of Mastercoin for BitMastercoins one day. Humanity wins with the creation of all these new decentralized services and technologies, and we can all thank Satoshi Nakamoto for his, her, or their creation of the blockchain technology. In a few years, we could be talking about a situation where the entire Internet has been replaced with services that use the blockchain technology as the foundation of their development.

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